While the drought caused a “false fall” for some of our trees which therefore lost their leaves early, the summer sun, extending into late autumn has led many trees to hold onto their leaves longer than usual, as has the relative lack of high winds and rain. Leaf senescence (leaf-drop), results from a complex set of relationships between climate, genes and chemicals, but whenever it happens, it is a result of the deciduous plant or tree redirecting its nutrients and chemicals away from leaves, from the tree-tops initially, shutting down fluids and corking over the leaf-ends so they fall. The autumn colours on some plants are a result of chlorophyll being broken down, the green fading and revealing the carotenoids and flavonoids, which glow red, orange, yellow etc. This year our garden colours, seen here,
Cotinus Golden Spirit, usually this far north it remains yellow in autumn but not this year
Fallen leaves of Rowan Joseph Rock
Rowan Joesph Rock and Cotinus Grace, and the Oak still full of leaf
are enhanced by the sugars built up from so much sunshine this summer and autumn. Conditions: Mild and cloudy. Temperature: Max 13 Min 5C.
Rowan Berries– this has certainly been an atypical year in many ways. We have never kept the berries on our native Rowan this late in the year. Probably due to the proliferation of fruits and berries in the wild, the Blackbirds have only just started eating them, as the cooler weather comes in. The yellow berries on our Rowan ‘Joseph Rock’ are varying in colour from nearly white to rosy red- again, a first since it was planted about 15 years ago, and probably due to extra sugars from this year’s excessive dry heat. The stunning autumn colours of the Joseph Rock leaves are, however, beginning to glow as usual. Conditions: Cool, drizzle clearing to sunny intervals. Temperature: Max 9 Min 2C.
Male Blackbird eating Joseph Rock Rowan berries
Blackbird on Joseph Rock Rowan
Female Blackbird eating native Rowan berries
Hawthorn- there is a bumper crop of Haws, Hawthorn Berries, this year as the photo’s show. These berries have been used as herbal remedies since at least the ancient Greeks, and probably far longer. They are high in anti-oxidants and are still used by some to treat stomach-aches, stress and sleep-problems. Hawthorn has long mythic associations, and our Celtic ancestors believed the trees to be protected and inhabited by Faery Folk, representing
places where time passes differently to our own. Isolated trees were not cut down, for fear of invoking the wrath of the Faery Queen. The site of Westminster Abbey was once called Thorne Island after the stand of sacred Hawthorn trees there. The berries can be made into jellies, and I have just seen a recipe, on Countryfile’s website, for Hawthorn Gin. We might give it a go. Makes a change from Sloe Gin. Conditions: Grey and drizzly. Temperature: Max 10 Min 9C.
Harlequin Ladybirds- you may already have experienced the latest inundation of Harlequin Ladybirds. Thought to have benefitted from this hot summer, the populations are increased at this time of year by thousands drifting in on mild winds, from Asia. The most invasive species we have at present, this ‘invader’ first appeared in the UK in 2004- in ten years it has spread to areas which it took Grey Squirrels a hundred years to inhabit. Harlequin Ladybirds, on average larger than our 46 native species, and in a variety of patterns and colours and spot-numbers, have brown legs, and as such are distinguishable from the black-legged native species. They also reduce native Ladybirds, by out-competing for their aphid-food and by eating their eggs. Hibernating inside, unlike native Ladybirds, they give out a pheromone as the cooler weather arrives, which helps them detect other Harlequins, and gather in numbers inside our houses, and outbuildings. They do little harm though they may stain furniture and can deliver a small bite, which is harmless to all except a few who may have an allergic reaction. Conditions: Rain and strong winds arriving through the day. Temperature: Max 18 Min 17 C.
Since we are off to the Sheffield Tree Festival later, amidst talks between Sheffield City Council and Sheffield Tree Action Group, it seems appropriate to feature one of England’s iconic but threatened tree species. Introduced from Turkey in the 16th Century, the Horse Chestnut was widely planted in public spaces and large estates but there are fears that this all-year round beauty, from the early sticky buds, and beautiful ‘candle’ blossoms, to the Conkers so many of us grew up gathering and playing, to the stunning bare trees and trunks of old specimens, there are two attacks on Horse Chestnuts. A moth, spreading from Greece and Macedonia, is destroying leaves before many Conkers have had time to fully develop. And a fungal infection, reported only 4 times in 2000 but affecting around half of all our trees by 2007, damages and weakens the trees themselves. We were lucky to have found
Conkers, Lincolnshire, 2018
Horse Chestnut trunk, Herstmonceux, East Sussex
Horse Chestnut, Herstmonceux castle
Damaged Horse Chestnut leaf
some lovely Conkers in Lincolnshire last week. Conditions: Still and blue-skied. Temperature: Max 15 Min 8C.
Whether in huge flocks of 100-plus last week in Lincolnshire, or in small ‘Charms’ of half a dozen on our garden feeders all week, we are getting plenty of viewings of the beautiful Goldfinch. There are still juveniles in immature plumage, which show the beginning of the black and white ladder-back and the gold wing-flash but lack the red, black and white head markings. Goldfinches were often used as caged birds, due to their beauty and liquid song, and were heavily persecuted up until the 1930’s, so their apparent increase over the last few years may be deceptive- they are still recovering previous levels and are also being drawn more into gardens as farmland and scrub produces less of the seeds they rely on. In the wild they need thistle, ragwort, groundsel and dandelion seed but better food mixes for garden feeders,
Immature Goldfinch, lacking the bright head-markings
Large flock of Goldfinch, feeding on fields in Lincolnshire
Large flock of Goldfinches, Lincolnshire
including sunflower and fat, have helped the population levels and certainly the visibility of this small, native finch. Numbers rise over summer months but ringing suggests many migrate south, even into Continental Europe over winter. Conditions: A balmy spell of autumn weather. Temperature: Max 19 Min 13 C.
Late flowering sources of food for bees, hoverflies and butterflies are so important in garden and wild spaces, especially in a year like this when the exceptionally hot, dry summer had meant so many flowering plants had flowered early, brought on by the heat. It is worth planting a few perennials like Heleniums, Buddleia,or Echinacea. I love watching the Bees, especially, and how they manoeuvre themselves into and out of the tubes of Fuchsia and the ‘helmets’ of Himalayan Balsam (which has, thankfully, been checked in its intrusive spread a little this year, owing to it preferring damp places). Honey Bees especially need extra food, as many live over winter and need to build up their reserves. Conditions: Calm before the predicted winds and rain, a hangover of Hurricane Florence crossing the Atlantic in the next couple of days. Temperature: Max 22 Min 14 C.
Small White feeding on Verbena Bonariensis