The lovely House Martins, (they were my dad’s favourite), are in decline all over central and northern Europe so it was wonderful to see these on the Moray Firth recently, with the ingredients they so desperately need to breed- muddy puddles! about twenty were collecting mud pellets which they mix with grass to build their cup-shaped nests under eaves. It takes about two weeks to build a nest from scratch, lining it with feathers, but they sometimes recolonise their old nests, which takes less work. Pre-19th century, House Martins nested on cliffs but they have now abandoned these sites for domestic and farm buildings. The other thing then need is an abundant supply of flying insects which are also declining of course. The young can, amazingly, survive a few days without food, going into kind of mini-
hibernation, but the sorts of extreme weather we are having more- both bad conditions and too hot and dry weather, are affecting breeding success. Conditions: Hot, humid with storms around. Temperature: Max 18 Min 12C.